The Growing Popularity of Synthetic Cannabinoids
With cannabis continuing to be outlawed in most parts of the world, synthetic cannabinoids are growing in popularity, especially in the research community. Many scientists must rely on synthetic cannabinoids due to bureaucratic hurdles preventing them from researching cannabis or cannabis-derived cannabinoids.
Below is a short description of ten different synthetic cannabinoids (source).
5F-AKB48 is a synthetic cannabinoid and chemical analogue of the parent compound AKB48. It has very close chemical resemblance to AKB48 however with a fluoro atom attached, giving the compound a distinctive set of properties. Many of those who are interested in AKB48 may find their research can be complimented by using this compound. 5F-AKB48 has proven to be very popular within the research community, in both the UK and Europe. Due to the chemical relatedness to the parent compound, many researchers are using this compound within similar research experiments.
Recently some of the popular synthetic cannabinoids have had a fluorine atom attached to give scientists an interesting opportunity to analyses the in vitro (outside living organism) differences this can have. AKB-48 is now available as 5F-AKB-48, and we now see the introduction of 5F-PB-22 which will prove just as popular. 5F-PB-22 differs from its parent compound PB-22 in that it has its terminal pentyl chain with an additional Fluorine atom. PB-22 first surfaced as an analogue to JWH-018.
AB-CHMINACA Also known as N-[(1S)-1-(aminocarbonyl)-2-methylpropyl]-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide
Following on from the release of the popular AB-FUBINACA, this potent synthetic cannabinoid offers another exciting addition to the ever increasing line of synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists. As a structural relative to AB-FUBINACA, this compound only differs by having a 4-fluorophenyl group substituted for the cyclohexyl group. As such, it is assumed to have a similarly high binding affinity, and potential therapeutic future as an analgesic. All necessary precautions must be taken when researching AB-CHMINACA as it will actively bind to cannabinoid receptors at extremely low quantities.
AB-Fubinaca Also known as N-[(1S)-1-(aminocarbonyl)-2-methylpropyl]-1-[(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide
First synthesized by Pfizer in 2009 for potential therapeutic use, this potent cannabinoid modulator is able to bind with a high affinity with Ki values of 0.9nM at CB1 and 23.2nM at CB2. Chemical profiling suggests this synthetic cannabinoid could have potential analgesic properties similar to other compounds in its class. Chemically known as N-[(1S)-1-(aminocarbonyl)-2-methylpropyl]-1-[(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide, this novel research chemical offers a new approach for cannabinoid receptor enthusiasts, as it has a 10-fold greater affinity for the central CB1 receptor than the famous JWH-018. Much like similar cannabinoids only a small quantity of AB-FUBINACA is required for a full active receptor response.
Indazole-based cannabinoid AB-PINACA first appeared in Japan in 2012, drawing a lot of attention due to its unique molecular structure and biochemical imprint. The substance was occasionally found in various herbal products since it has been synthesized, but until now it was difficult to obtain as an isolated compound. RCNET-Chemicals is among the first online stores to introduce crystalline AP-PINACA into its range of legal synthetic cannabinoids, empowering specialists who follow this field to conduct detailed testing. The substance has not been extensively studied so far and most of what is known about its impact on both types of CB receptors is based on analogies with other synthetic cannabinoids, especially those that feature indazole rings within the molecule, such as AB-FUBINACA. Similar to its relatives, the compound is expected to act as a cannabinoid agonist, but objective confirmation of this role has not yet been achieved.
MMB CHMINACA is a potent synthetic cannabinoid from the indole family that has some structural similarities with better know cannabinoids such as AB-CHMINACA. However, inclusion of the dimethylbutanoate group in the molecule is altering the pharmacological profile of this substance to a significant degree, making it a prime target for cutting-edge research all around the world.
Substances described as synthetic cannabinoids are numerous and diverse – sometimes the slightest change in the molecular structure can have a huge impact on biochemical potentials of the compound. This might be the case with HM-2201, a novel research chemical that closely resembles composure of the substance it was derived from, AM-2201, with the only major difference coming in the form of a linked ester at the 3’ position of the molecule. Since the parent compound was ascertained to have a powerful interaction with CB1 and CB2 neurological receptors, it is suspected that NM-2201 could exhibit similar tendencies as well. However, this extrapolation will have to be proven under laboratory conditions before it can be taken as a fact.
STS-135 or 5F-2NE1 is a synthetic cannabinoid used as an experimental research chemical due to its binding capabilities to the endogenous cannabinoid receptors. STS-135 has been used in conjunction with other unselective synthetic cannabinoids such as AM-2201. Many have found STS-135 to be an extremely useful synthetic cannabinoid as it acts as a full agonist at the cannabinoid receptors. STS-135 has only surfaced recently but has proven to be a big hit with certain study programmes.
Chemically speaking THJ-018 is an indazole analogue of JWH-018, meaning that the core indole structure has been replaced with an indazole base. This means that structurally speaking, this compound would have very similar binding profile to that of JWH-018 and would hypothetically match the in vivo properties of Δ9-THC. Primary binding would be on the CB1 receptor subgroup.
As a synthetic cannabinoid analogue of AM-2201, this compound is believed to act as a potent agonist to the central CB1 and peripheral CB2 receptors with Ki values of 1.0 and 2.6nM respectively. As with the previously announced THJ-018, this compound is another structural analogue (however this time to AM-2201), with the indazole group replacing the indole group. This opens up a fresh new approach to cannabinoid research after the 2013 temporary class drug order prevented the progression of studies using the popular AM series of cannabinoid. It is assumed that this research chemical, along with THJ-018 will fill a much needed gap in the current cannabinoid scene.