Study: CBDA and THC Have Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Hyperalgesia Effects

Both cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) show  anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesia effects on acute inflammation, according to a new study published by the journal Psychopharmacology, and epublished ahead of print by the National Institute of Health.

“The present study evaluates the anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesia effects of CBD’s potent acidic precursor, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), in a rodent model of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in the rat hind paw, when administered systemically (intraperitoneal, i.p.) or orally before and/or after carrageenan”, begins the study’s abstract. “In addition, we assess the effects of oral administration of THC or CBDA, their mechanism of action, and the efficacy of combined ineffective doses of THC and CBDA in this model. Finally, we compare the efficacy of CBD and CBDA.”

Researchers found that “CBDA given i.p. 60 min prior to carrageenan (but not 60 min after carrageenan) produced dose-dependent anti-hyperalgesia and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, THC or CBDA given by oral gavage 60 min prior to carrageenan produced anti-hyperalgesia effects, and THC reduced inflammation.”

Read moreStudy: CBDA and THC Have Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Hyperalgesia Effects

5 Differences Between THC and CBD

By Robert Bergman,

What are the differences between THC and CBD? Here’s a look.

When you first start smoking weed, you hear the acronyms THC and CBD a lot. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the two main active cannabinoids in the cannabis plant. There are over one hundre other cannbinoids such as THC-V, THC-A,  and CBN, but if you’re first starting out you should primarily concern yourself with the first two, at least for now. Cannabinoids are these neat little compounds that interact with the endocannabinoids that naturally occur in your body. Though they are both cannabinoids, there are quite a few differences between THC and CBD. For instance…

CBD is Non Psychoactive

This is one of the biggest differences between THC and CBD. THC is the psychoactive cannabinoid; it’s the one that gets you baked. You know that heavy and relaxing feeling that you get after smoking some OG Kush? That can be attributed to THC. CBD on the other hand, is considered to be non psychoactive. This doesn’t mean that you feel nothing after using a high CBD strain or oil, quite the contrary. You won’t experience a noticeable change in your mood, but your body will feel uplifted and just all around. If you were feeling like you’re coming down with a cold prior to smoking, CBD will make you feel better almost instantly. Hence one of the reasons why CBD strains are more popular among medical cannabis users

CBD has Antipsychotic Properties

Sometimes when you smoke a high THC strain you might feel a little off. You might feel a little paranoid, you might have trouble concentrating, maybe your brain feels a little too slowed down, or maybe you feel dizzy. Regardless the effect, it seems that you got too high. The nice thing about CBD is that it can counteract some of those negative effects, and in some cases erase them entirely. High CBD strains are an excellent choice for first timers or those who haven’t figured out what their limits are.

CBD was Discovered First

A lot of people are inclined to believe that THC and CBD were discovered at the same time, or that THC was discovered first  This is another of the biggest differences between THC and CBD. CBD was discovered by American scientist  Roger Adams, a chemist at the University of Illinois, some 20 years before.  THC was actually discovered later by Israeli scientist and college professor Raphael Mechoulam back in the sixties. Mechoulam, better known as the father of cannabinoid research, is quite the extraordinary man.  You can read an interesting interview with Dr. Mechoulam here. Amazing as he is, he is often mistakenly credited with discovering both.

CBD Doesn’t Cause Anxiety

While some strains of high THC cannabis seem to cause endless anxiety in some, CBD does not cause any anxiety. Strains with low amounts of THC and high amounts of CBD are often used to treat anxiety, and I can tell you from experience that they are  extremely good at it. The next time you are feeling some anxiety, try reaching for a CBD strain like  ACDC rather than your usual THC strain. You will notice the difference and you’ll feel a lot better.

CBD Energizes You More

This is one of the differences between THC and CBD that a lot of people don’t know about. After consuming certain strains of THC, you’ve probably felt a little tired. This is because of the psychoactive effects of THC. This is why it is commonly used as a sleep aid. That’s great when you’re looking to go to sleep, but if you’re looking for a strain to pep you up and get you ready for the day, then you should try a CBD strain instead. You will notice that you feel more energized, with none of the fogginess that comes with using some other strains. Here’s another little secret: they’re great for hangovers. They say the best cure for a hangover is time, well add a little CBD to that and you are golden.

So as you can see, CBD has a lot of uses, and is in fact, quite helpful. CBD is what helps to heal the body, hence why it’s so popular among medical users. Try some today and it will change your life, I promise.

How Long Does Marijuana Stay in the System (with Infograph)

Below is an infograph detailing how long marijuana stays in your system.

The data used to create this infographic is gathered from research on drug testing methods and the information presented by drug screen manufacturers. Some resources include Redwood Toxicology, Cannabis Drug Testing, California NORML. The information presented is only a guide or estimate since drug testing has many variables that can influence a positive or negative outcome.

How Long Does Marijuana Stay in your System? is a frequent question posed by cannabis consumers. While there is no definitive answer, below are some guidelines. The only way to really know if you are positive is to test yourself. You can test yourself with a cheap drug test and know if you are positive.

How long does THC stay in your system?

The most common drug tests used are urine, saliva and hair. Each test has a different detection time which is important to know. The urine drug test is the most commonly used because it is cheap and has a longer detection time than a saliva test. There are several very important factors that can influence how long THC will be present in your urine:

  • Weight
  • Body Fat
  • Amount Used
  • Frequency of Use

Since these factors will vary greatly for each individual, there are no definitive guidelines to tell you how long you can test positive for THC.

On a Urine Drug Test, THC will appear as a positive within 2-5 hours of use. How long it will still show on a urine drug test is estimated based on frequency of use, but does not take into account the weight and body fat of the marijuana user:

  • One Time User may show positive for 1-6 days
  • Moderate User may show positive for 7-13 days
  • Frequent User may show positive for 15 or more days
  • Heavy User may show positive for 30 or more days
  • Some Heavy Pot Smokers have reported being positive 45-90 days after quitting

On a Saliva Drug Test, THC will test positive within one hour of use, but may only show positive for about 12 hours after last use.

On a Hair Drug Test, THC will show up about 7 days after use and most hair drug tests will test for a 90 day period. However, THC does not always bind to the hair follicle which makes it not always considered an accurate testing method for marijuana use.

The most reliable way to know if you are testing positive for marijuana use is to drug test yourself.

And now for the infograph:

how long does weed stay in your system


Average THC Percentage of Cannabis in France has Risen Nearly 200% Since 2009 and 650% Since 1995

thc percentageThe average THC percentage in France’s cannabis has risen rapidly in the past several years, according to new research.

The study was published in the journal Forensic Science International, and published online by the U.S. National Institute of Health.

The study’s abstract starts with some basic information for those unfamiliar with cannabis:

Read moreAverage THC Percentage of Cannabis in France has Risen Nearly 200% Since 2009 and 650% Since 1995

What is THC-COOH?

Many people don’t realize that standard drug tests don’t test for THC; they test for THC-COOH. But what is THC-COOH?

thc-coohTHC-COOH is the main secondary metabolite of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) which is formed in the body after cannabis is consumed. Most drug tests don’t test for THC; they test for THC-COOH.


The Science:

THC-COOH, also called 11-COOH-THC. is formed in the body by oxidation of the active metabolite 11-Hydroxy-THC (also known as 11-OH-THC) by liver enzymes. It is then metabolized further, forming a water-soluble congener which can be more easily excreted by the body.

Unlike THC, 11-COOH-THC is not psychoactive. It does have a much longer half-life, however.

Why Does this Matter?

THC-COOH has a long half-life that can stay in the body for many days. For heavy cannabis consumers, it can stay in the body for weeks or even months (up to 77 days according to one study). This means a drug test can be failed even if the person hasn’t consumed cannabis for weeks.

More selective tests may distinguish between 11-OH-THC and 11-COOH-THC. If 11-OH-THC is detected it’s more of an indicator that cannabis was consumed recently.


Medical Properties:

Some studies have indicated that THC-COOH plays a role in the pain-relieving and antiinflammatory effects of cannabis. It has also been shown to moderate the effects of THC itself which may help explain the difference in subjective effects seen between occasional and regular users of cannabis.[13][14]

THC: How Long Does it Stay in Your System?

By Adam Hoffman,

thcCongratulations, you just landed your dream job! Your eyes widen as you read through the offer letter from your future boss. “Salary…health benefits…401k.” All that hard work has finally paid off! But as you reach the bottom, your heart stops. “Routine drug testurinemarijuana.”

Panic sets in. When was the last time you smoked cannabis? Two weeks ago? Three weeks? And how long will it show up on a drug test?

Although conventional wisdom says at least 30 days, the answer is not straightforward. There are many different kinds of drug tests available, which have varying levels of sensitivity and time periods that they will detect cannabis in your system.

Meanwhile, wide-ranging patterns of usage as well as a unique biology for each individual make the calculation of a concrete detection window (the number of days after ceasing usage that a drug test will continue to be positive) even more complex.

“There is no typical window of detection,” says Ryan Vandrey, an associate professor of psychiatry and behavioral science at Johns Hopkins University. “It is highly variable from person to person and it varies based on the frequency of use and the amount of use. So there is no way of predicting or knowing how long someone would test positive with any kind of certainty.”

How Do Drug Tests Work?

how drug tests work to test for thc

About 40 to 50 million drug tests are conducted by employers each year. These tests analyze biological material including urine, hair, blood, saliva, breath, sweat, and even fingernails. When cannabis is consumed, THC levels temporarily rise in the body. These are detectable by blood tests from several hours up to a day after a single usage. Although these levels drop significantly after a few days, there are still other means of determining recent usage.

THC, CBD, and their metabolic byproducts, called metabolites, are lipid-soluble and accumulate in fat reserves throughout the body. These molecules are then slowly released over time. This results in a considerably longer time period for the body to purge itself of marijuana traces. Especially compared to other recreational drugs. And especially for chronic users. Hair tests tend to have the longest detection window. They are capable of registering the levels of  a non-psychoactive THC metabolite up to 90 days after cessation.

While each drug test has its advantages, urine tests tend to be the test of choice by most private employers. They are the sole test recommended by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).. Like hair tests, these urine screens do not directly measure the amount of THC present. Rather the levels of the metabolite THC-COOH.

Once a specific test is selected, the experimenter must then choose its sensitivity, or the cutoff concentration of THC-COOH above which a test is considered positive. The most common cutoff for most urine tests is 50 ng/mL. However, cutoffs can be as low as 15ng/mL and as high as 100ng/mL. Each of which result in widely different detection windows.

“Testing is usually a two-step process,” says Vandrey. “The first step is a qualitative yes/no with a typical cutoff of 50 nanograms per milliliter. And if you see a qualitative positive, you then send it off for confirmation with a more sensitive quantitative assessment that uses a 15 nanograms per milliliter cutoff.”

Despite the fact that SAMHSA sets standards that regulate these urine tests, the vast variability in cannabis use as well as individual differences in biology and genetics stymie efforts to develop specific time windows for detection.

How Long Does Cannabis Stay in Your System?

how long does thc from marijuana stay in your system
Meanwhile, each of us has a unique metabolism that processes cannabis at a different rate, further complicating the picture. Even amongst people of the same gender and age, individual lifestyle choices such as levels of exercise and eating habits may also affect the amount of time required to pass a drug test (those with higher levels of fat content store cannabinoids more readily than leaner folks).

Given these preliminary grains of salt, however, there are several studies that have explored this question over the years. These offer some general guidance for those awaiting their impending drug test.

According to a 2005 review by Paul Cary, while detection times in excess of 30 days do occur for some, they are largely an exception.

For example, a 1989 study of chronic users showed a maximum detection window of 25 days at a sensitivity of 20 ng/mL. Yet he points out that only one subject tested positive after 14 days; it took an average of just 9.8 days before cannabinoid levels were no longer detectible. And while a 1984 study testing chronic users at a cutoff of 50 ng/mL showed a maximum of 40 days to get clean, 8 out of the 10 subjects needed only 13 days to show their first negative.

Consequently, Cary offers some shorter estimates of detection windows that he believes would be reasonable to expect given an individual’s frequency of usage and the sensitivity of the particular urine test.

At the standard 50 ng/mL cutoff? He states that “it would be unlikely for a chronic user to produce a positive urine drug test result for longer than 10 days after the last smoking episode.” And if this sensitivity is dropped to the 20 ng/mL level, he posits that this detection window extends to around 21 days for frequent users.

For those who smoke occasionally or for the first time? “It would be unusual for the detection of cannabinoids in urine to extend beyond 3-4 days following the smoking episode” at the 50 ng/mL cutoff. This is drawn out to around one week for a more sensitive 20 ng/mL threshold.

It’s also important to remember that ‘occasional’ and ‘chronic’ each represent opposite sides of the usage spectrum. Most users would likely fall somewhere in the middle.

“I think these [detection times] are reasonable,” says Ron Flegel, director of the division of workplace programs at SAMHSA. “If it is an infrequent use or a single use it usually takes just about 72 hours” at the 50 ng/mL cutoff, whereas “chronic users are probably looking at seven to ten days.

Factors That May Impact Drug Test Results

factors that impact thc in drug test results

Flegel also notes that he often sees cases where individuals fluctuate between positive and negative tests over a period of time.

“A lot of people call us and say the person was negative and now they are positive, and they say they haven’t used,” says Flegel. “But if a person becomes dehydrated it concentrates the urine and when they exercise it breaks down fat cells and releases THC,” both of which increase the chances of a positive test. “So you will actually see that over time they will go up and down between positive and negative.”

andrey believes that these general recommendations are unfounded.

“In a single acute use for a fixed dose we might see a range of variability on the order of days,” he says. “So someone might be clean the next day and others might be positive for seven days. And if you are talking about frequent repeated use the variability just gets bigger. I have had people who smoked cannabis all day every day be clean in a week and a half, and others be dirty for two months.”

Does CBD Consumption Result in a Positive Drug Test?

cbd in drug test results

And what about those who consume other non-psychoactive cannabinoids such as CBD (cannabidiol)? How long does it stay in your system, and will it show up on a drug test?

Because urine testing analyzes metabolites of THC, those who consume CBD/hemp oil have little risk of testing positive. But because hemp oils contain very small amounts of THC, those who use an extraordinarily large amount of cannabinoid-rich oil products (greater than 1000-2000 mg each day) might show a positive test on the initial urine screen, which is susceptible to cross contamination from other cannabinoids. However, this initial “false positive” would not hold up to the more rigorous second round of confirmatory testing, which specifically measures THC-COOH.

Passing a Cannabis Drug Test

passing a marijuana drug test

But for those who do consume cannabis, is there anything you can do prevent a positive test or speed up the detoxification process?

Although abstinence is an obvious initial answer, it may even be dangerous to hang out with friends who are smoking. Indeed, in a 2015 study, Vandrey exposed a small group of participants to secondhand smoke. He showed that some participants who sat in non-ventilated room tested positive for THC-COOH. Concentrations in urine exceeded 57 ng/mL in some patients.

“You can’t inadvertently have secondhand smoke exposure to the extent that would trigger a positive urine test, but it is possible,” says Vandrey. “So if you are subject to drug testing and are surrounded by a bunch of people smoking weed in a closed up room, you should leave.”

Many who are facing a drug test but are unwilling to fully give up cannabis turn to synthetic cannabinoids. With hopes of cheating traditional tests. Yet, these alternatives, commonly referred to as “K2” or “spice,” are unpredictable. They show side effects ranging from nausea to seizures. They have caused a spike in overdoses in recent months. Many private companies now include tests for synthetic cannabinoids in their repertoire. This make the approach both dangerous and futile.

Others who continue to smoke may attempt to tamper with their urine, adding chemicals such as pyridinium chlorochromate or peroxidase that eliminate THC-COOH in the sample. Most testing agencies, however, will screen for these compounds and being caught is often just as bad, if not worse, than a positive test.

“In our programs if you adulterate a sample it is considered a refusal to test, and in most situations you are fired,” says Flegel.

How to Get Rid of THC in Your System

how to get rid of marijuana in your system

For those who are able to quit, one common technique is to drink a lot of water. This flushes out the system. This can be a good approach, as dehydration will increase the concentration of your urine. This could increase your chances for a positive result. Diluted urine will invalidate the results. This will mean you will need to take the test again. So hydrate carefully.

A potentially more effective tactic for speeding up the detoxification process might be hitting the gym.

“Fasting is going to burn fat, which is going to release more cannabinoids,” says Vandrey.

Nonetheless, it is important to give your body enough time to clear out these stored cannabinoids. Exercise or fasting will likely result in a transient spike in measurable THC metabolites as they exit the body.

Given the current detection windows for standard cannabis tests, it’s likely you will be able to pass a urine test. It may be different for extremely heavy users. But if your employer tests you regularly and without prior notification, perhaps it wasn’t a dream job after all.

Study: THC can Prevent Inflammation Induced by Airway Diseases

lungA new study published in the journal Biochemical Pharmacology, and epublished ahead of print by the National Institute of Health, has found that THC – a compound found in cannabis – is beneficial in preventing inflammation caused by various airway diseases such as bronchitis and emphysema.

“Despite pharmacological treatment, bronchial hyperresponsiveness continues to deteriorate as airway remodelling persists in airway inflammation”, states researchers. “Previous studies have demonstrated that the phytocannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) reverses bronchoconstriction with an anti-inflammatory action. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of THC on bronchial epithelial cell permeability after exposure to the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNFα.”

Read moreStudy: THC can Prevent Inflammation Induced by Airway Diseases

Study: Cannabis an Effective Medicine in Early and Late Stage Dementia

dementiaA new study published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease has found that cannabis is not only an effective medicine in the early stages of dementia, it’s also effective in its late stages.

“Previous reports have demonstrated that the combination of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) botanical extracts, which are the components of an already approved cannabis-based medicine, reduce the Alzheimer-like phenotype of AβPP/PS1 transgenic mice when chronically administered during the early symptomatic stage”, begins the study’s abstract. “Here, we provide evidence that such natural cannabinoids are still effective in reducing memory impairment in AβPP/PS1 mice at advanced stages of the disease”.

Read moreStudy: Cannabis an Effective Medicine in Early and Late Stage Dementia

Study: THC and CBDA Effective in Treating and Preventing Nausea, Stimulating Appetite

cannabiscuresnauseaAdministration of extremely small amounts of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBDA (cannabidiolic acid) – both cannabis compounds – is effective in treating and preventing nausea, and stimulating appetite, in those going through chemotherapy, a new study has found. The study was published in the journal Psychopharmacology, and published online by the National Institute of Health.

“The objective of this study was to determine the effect of combining subthreshold oral doses of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) on acute and anticipatory nausea in rat models of conditioned gaping”, states the study’s abstract.

Read moreStudy: THC and CBDA Effective in Treating and Preventing Nausea, Stimulating Appetite

THC Stimulates Toxic Plaque Removal in the Brain, Blocks Inflammation, Finds Study

BrainA new study published in Nature Partner Journals has found that tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) stimulates toxic plaque removal in the brain; toxic plaque in the brain is common in Alzheimer’s disease. The study also found that THC blocks inflammation in the brain, which can damage neurons.

“It is reasonable to conclude that there is a therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease,” says David Schubert, a professor at Salk Institute for Biological Studies who was involved with the study.

Read moreTHC Stimulates Toxic Plaque Removal in the Brain, Blocks Inflammation, Finds Study