Cannabidiol (CBD) legislation in California has been passed by two Assembly committees, both unanimously.
Assembly Bill 845 was passed earlier this month by the Assembly Health Committee, and on Wednesday was given approval by the Assembly Appropriations Committee; both committees passed the bill unanimously with a combined vote of 30 to 0.
According to the proposal; “Existing law, the California Uniform Controlled Substances Act, classifies controlled substances into 5 designated schedules, with the most restrictive limitations generally placed on controlled substances classified in Schedule I, and the least restrictive limitations generally placed on controlled substances classified in Schedule V. Existing law places marijuana in Schedule I. Cannabidiol is a compound found in marijuana.” Existing law also “restricts the prescription, furnishing, possession, sale, and use of controlled substances, including marijuana and synthetic cannabinoid compounds, and makes a violation of those laws a crime, except as specified.”
Tennessee’s governor has signed into law a bill that allows the medical use of cannabidiol (CBD) after FDA approval.
Senate Bill 385 was signed into law today by Governor Bill Haslam. The measure was approved unanimously through both the House of Representatives (90 to 0) and Senate (33 to 0); it took effect immediately upon receiving Governor Haslam’s signature.
According to its official summary, Senate Bill 385; “Exempts cannabidiol products approved as prescription medications by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from the definition of“marijuana” under title 39, chapter 17, part 4.”
Legislation that excludes cannabidiol (CBD) from the definition of marijuana and makes it a Schedule IV drug has been signed into law by Governor Dennis Daugaard.
Senate Bill 95, “An Act to add cannabidiol to the list of Schedule IV controlled substances and to exclude it from the definition of marijuana”, was passed by the South Dakota Senate last month with a 27 to 7 vote; it passed the House of Representatives a couple weeks later with a 54 to 13 vote. Now, it has been signed into law by Governor Daugaard.
Senate Bill 95 was filed by Senator Richard Curd and cosponsored by a bipartisan group of eight senators. With its passage South Dakota joins nearly 20 states that have passed laws recognizing the medical value of CBD, one of the primary compounds found in cannabis.
Cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabis compounds, may be useful in treating anxiety-related disorders as well a substance abuse disorders, according to a new study,
“[C]annabidiol, the main non-psychotomimetic phytocannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa, reduces anxiety”, states the abstract of the study, published by the British Journal of Pharmacology and the U.S. National Institute of Health. “There is also accumulating evidence from animal studies investigating the effects of cannabidiol on fear memory processing indicating that it reduces learned fear in paradigms that are translationally relevant to phobias and post-traumatic stress disorder.”
The abstract continues; “Cannabidiol does so by reducing fear expression acutely and by disrupting fear memory reconsolidation and enhancing fear extinction, both of which can result in a lasting reduction of learned fear. Recent studies have also begun to elucidate the effects of cannabidiol on drug memory expression using paradigms with translational relevance to addiction.
Virginia’s full legislature has given approval to legislation allowing for the production and distribution of medical oil made from cannabidiol (CBD) or THC-A (tetrahydrocannabinol acid).
Under current Virginia law, oil made from CBD or THCA (both compounds found in cannabis) is legal to possess and use for medical purposes, but only for those with intractable epilepsy. There also isn’t a safe, legal means for patients to access the oil.
The newly-approved measure would greatly expand the list of conditions that makes someone eligible to use these medicines to include HIV/AIDS, cancer, Crohn’s disease, multiple sclerosis and several others. The proposal also allows pharmacies to manufacture and distribute the medicines to qualified patients (those with a qualifying condition who receive a recommendation from a physician and register with the state).
A major producer of tobacco has decided that they’re quitting the industry to instead grow hemp.
The22nd Century Group has helped design over 50 varieties of tobacco, all of which have been modified to be less addictive; certain brands of their tobacco contain up to 97% less nicotine than most cigarettes. Currently the New York-based biotech company is valued at over $60 million.
Now, after years of working with tobacco, the company is switching gears; going forward they will be growing and producing hemp for industrial and medical use. The company plans to use the tools at their disposal to help produce hemp that consistently grows without tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in cannabis (hemp plants also tend to have THC, but minuscule amounts).
Legislation to legalize the medical use of cannabidiol (CBD) has been approved by Indiana’s full legislature.
The measure was approved 98 to 0 by the state’s House of Representatives on Tuesday, following approval from the Senate. It now goes to Governor Eric Holcomb for consideration.
Under the proposed law, it would be legal for those with a seizure disorder to possess and use medicines that contain marijuana-derived CBD, given they receive a recommendation from a physician. Tinctures, oils and pills would all be allowed, given they contain little virtually no tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
A Wisconsin Senate committee has voted unanimously to legalize the medical use of cannabis oil that doesn’t contain THC.
The Senate Judiciary Committee passed Senate Bill 10 with a 4 to 0 vote. It now moves towards a vote in the full Senate, where its passage would send it to the House of Representatives. Passage in the House would send it to Governor Scott Walker, likely the measure’s toughest obstacle.
If it is passed into law:
An individual may possess cannabidiol in a form without a psychoactive effect if the individual has certification stating that the individual possesses cannabidiol to treat a medical condition, if the certification has an issue date that is no more than one year prior to the possession, and if any expiration date provided by the physician in the certification has not passed.
Cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychoactive ingredient in cannabis, has been legalized as a medicine in the United Kingdom.
The U.K.’s Medicines & Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) announced today that it has reclassified CBD so that it can be legally used for medical purposes. Up until this point CBD was as illegal as the plant it’s derived from; cannabis.
“The change really came about with us offering an opinion that CBD is, in fact, a medicine, and that opinion was based on the fact that we noted that people were making some quite stark claims about serious diseases that could be treated with CBD,” Gerald Heddel, director of inspection and enforcement at MHRA, told Sky News. “It was clear that people are using this product with the understandable belief that it will actually help”.
Cannabidiol (CBD) has taken the world by storm in recent years. And for good reason; it has vast medical value. Here’s a look at what cannabidiol is, how it works and what conditions it can help with.
What is cannabidiol (CBD)?
Cannabidiol is one of the most prevalent chemical compounds found inside the resin glands (trichomes) of the female cannabis plant. These chemical compounds are known as cannabinoids, or substrates that bind to special receptors on your cells. These cell receptors make up a larger endocannabinoid system.
The endocannabinoid system is a vast network of cell receptor proteins with many functions. Certain receptors are heavily concentrated in the central nervous system. But, others are found all over the body. They’re in your skin, digestive tract, and even in your reproductive organs.
The endocannabinoid system helps control everything from mood, cognition, movement, appetite, immune response, sleep, ovulation, and sperm development.
The human body produces compounds similar to those in the cannabis plant, called endocannabinoids. Molecules found on the herb are technically called phytocannabinoids. Like CBD’s more famous relative, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol is just one of 85+ phytocannabinoids found in the marijuana plant.
Very unlike THC, however, CBD is non-psychoactive.
Yep, that’s right. CBD cannot get you “high” or “stoned” in the way that THC does. While CBD still has an effect on your body, consuming CBD by itself isn’t going to send you on the cerebral adventure associated with THC. For decades, medical professionals and the general public overlooked CBD because marijuana’s psychoactive effects took center stage.
How does CBD work?
In general, far more marijuana research is needed to figure out just what effect this herb has on our bodies. But, to say that our understanding of CBD is “lacking” would be an understatement.
We have come a long way in CBD research. There are even new pharmaceutical drugs that are nothing more than purified CBD. But, CBD is one complicated compound.
One reason why figuring out all of the ways CBD actually works is so difficult is because it’s polypharmacological, meaning that it affects more than one aspect of our bodies at a time.
In a 2013 article, authors Srinivas Reddy and Shuexing Zhang summarize that,
Polypharmacology remains to be one of the major challenges in drug development, and it opens novel avenues to rationally design next generation of more effective but less toxic therapeutic agents.
Simply stated, when a drug causes bodily changes on multiple different levels, it’s difficult for us to figure out exactly how these changes interact with each other. So, while we now know quite a bit about CBD, the bottom of the iceberg still awaits discovery.
The science behind CBD
THC specifically binds to the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors on your cells. CBD doesn’t bind to these receptors very well. It prefers to do something a little different.
This is where things get complicated. Researchers have discovered a few ways that CBD interacts with the body, but this area of research is still fairly young. New discoveries are made each year.
Here’s a simple summary of what we currently know about CBD. The cannabinoid activates receptors such as vanilloid, adenosine, and serotonin receptors.
Vanilloid receptors help mediate pain signals in the body
Adenosine receptors help determine your sleep-wake cycle.
Caffeine blocks adenosine and creates a feeling of alertness
Serotonin receptors help control mood
CBD also regulates the endocannabinoids that occur naturally in your body. It blocks a particular fatty acid known as fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). This enzyme that’s responsible for breaking down the naturally occurring endocannabinoid anandamide in your body.
Anandamide helps regulate basic functions like pleasure and reward, appetite, ovulation, memory, sleep, and pain. With nothing to break anandamide into smaller parts, CBD boosts the amount of this chemical in your system.
But that’s not all. Cannabidiol has been shown to engage with receptors that help modulate body temperature and immune function, reducing inflammation. So, it does quite a lot of different things.
CBD vs THC
There is another fascinating component to CBD. It’s what biochemists refer to as a negative modulator for THC. Meaning, CBD actually negates some of the psychoactive effects of THC.
CBD may have an extremely low affinity for the CB1 receptors in the central nervous system, but the compound still can affect them.
Consuming CBD actually blocks some of your brain’s CB1 receptors, meaning that THC cannot have an effect on them.
Another interesting difference between the two cannabinoids is their effect on metabolism. You’ve probably already heard of the munchies. THC is to blame for all of those late night snacks after consuming a little cannabis.
CBD actually has the opposite effect. Studies have shown that CBD decreases appetite and increases satiety.
What is CBD used to treat?
The therapeutic value of CBD is almost unbelievable. For decades, we have outlawed a plant that produces what may become one of the most important medicines of the century. The polypharmacological nature of CBD means that it has an effect on a wide range of different ailments.
Below is a short list of some other conditions that CBD can help. For more information on these conditions, please click the links to the associated articles.
However, below is a short list of some other conditions that CBD can help. For more information on these conditions, please click the links to the associated articles.
While CBD is a powerful medicine on its own, it’s important to note that the compound’s effects are amplified when combined with other cannabinoids. One of the biggest debates surrounding CBD deals with the recent push toward “whole plant medicine.” The idea behind whole plant medicine has to do with something known as the entourage effect.
The entourage effect is the idea that combinations of cannabinoids, like CBD and THC, work together in synergy to produce certain therapeutic effects in the body. This may explain why some epileptic patients respond well to CBD, while others respond better to THC.
GW Pharmaceuticals’ Multiple Sclerosis (MS) drug Sativex, for example, contains a balanced ratio of THC to CBD. The two cannabinoids together work better at managing MS symptoms than just CBD alone.
If CBD is non-psychoactive, is it still illegal?
Unfortunately, the answer to this question is yes. But, it’s complicated. The Stanley Brothers are now selling CBD products online as hemp oil. It’s legal for people to buy their products without a medical marijuana authorization.
Though, most high CBD strains are still illegal. Any strain that contains more than 1% THC or so can be considered psychoactive. This makes it illegal.
To provide everyone with safe, easy access to CBD, it needs to be legalized. CBD has a wide variety of medical benefits and lack of addictive potential, all plant cannabinoids fall under the same Schedule 1 Drug classification.
If there’s one point to bring home in this article, it’s this: CBD has tremendous therapeutic potential. But, we need more hard-hitting research. Already, the discovery of THC and the endocannabinoid system has opened major doors in biochemical and psychiatric medicine.
Until we address the legal and political barriers that prevent us from exploring cannabis as medicine, our opened doors will remain unexplored.